Tag Archives: Germany

Knitting, not reading (pace Stevie Smith)

Typical, nothing for weeks then three come along at once! I have been on a long knitting jag, with jerseys, blankets and cardigans flying off the needles, it becomes compulsive after a while, but impedes the reading, AudioBooks become the order of the day (& night)…

So what have we in mind today. Two books about World War II, a non-fiction treatment and a semi-fiction treatment and one book about the “Indian Wars”, that is to say the European Americans and what they then called Red Indians, now spoken of as Native Americans.

So I shall start with that one. Paulette Jiles has written many books about this period of American history, that is to say the Civil War and the Indian Wars.

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It was while writing a previous book, Enemy Women, that she came across the story of Britt Johnson. Moses Johnson with fifteen white women and  five black including children left the war torn areas and moved to North Texas. Britt Johnson was a manumitted African American (called negro, black or nigger at the time depending on the speaker), he took the family and settled in North Texas. Britt had a wife and three children. The Colour of Lightning is their story. How the Comanche and Kiowa descended on the settlement, killed one child and captured Mary and the remaining two children, went on to capture another woman, Elizabeth Fitzgerald, and her two grandchildren.

None of this was written down at the time, 1865-1870s or thereabouts, and was only recorded after Britt Johnson’s death by people who knew him, or had heard about him, in 1900. So Paulette Jiles has pieced together the myth and the historical facts as known and created a story that brings all the characters to life, most of the people in this book are real, one or two are like people that existed, like the Indian Agent, a pacifist Quaker named Samuel Hammond, sent for purposes that only God knew, to control and negotiate with the most war-like tribes: the Comanche, the Kiowa and the Kiowa-Apache.

Britt Johnson is real, he was away when his family were attacked, he determined to recover his family, and other captives and having accomplished that to set up as a freight-driver. This is the story of how this ambition was realised.

Samuel Hammond, however, is based, but lightly, upon a real Indian Agent called Lawrie Tatum and Samuel is in the novel in order to explore the dilemma facing the Quaker settlers from Philadelphia, who took no part in the Civil War (though Samuel drove an ambulance), and therefore were little regarded by many European (white) Americans, and were now part of the great re-settlement (in reservations) of the Native (Reds, as they were known) Americans. How does a pacifist deal with a tribal custom that includes killing, raping and mutilating victims, taking of captives and a nomadic life that cannot be contained in a reservation, no matter how big?
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This map shows the territory as it was in 1864-65.

The other two books are rather different. Hemingway at War by Terry Mort, rather speaks for itself. Much has been written, not least by Ernest Hemingway himself, about his escapades, much has been exaggerated, mostly by EH and much has been denigrated by others. Moonglow, on the other hand, is a fictionalised account of a grandfather’s experience in Europe, principally Germany, towards the end of World War II. In this book, Michael Chabon recounts the stories told him by his grandfather towards the end of his life, while in a hospital and dying, suddenly and for the first time, he began to describe incidents in his past life, especially those dealing with his experiences in Germany. The novel is an amalgam of things that Michael knew about his grandfather and also these revelations made almost when it was too late to press for details.

Both books in their own ways give us an account of that cataclysm which cannot but broaden our view of the conflict.

Hemingway, though a non-combatant, saw quite a lot of fighting at first hand as he attached himself to the American 22nd Regiment and went with them from Normandy right through to the liberation of Paris and on to Germany, until they were decimated at the Battle of Hürtgen Forest, this small but intense part of the war was the bloodiest, most deadly encounter that the 22nd had experienced. Not unlike the Battle of the Bulge, it was fought in dense forest, with little or no room for deep trench defenses, and splinters of wood from blasted trees inflicting as many casualties and fatalities as ordinary shrapnel.PhotoScan (6)

Hemingway himself, claims to have killed at least 100 Germans, which as a journalist he was not entitled to do, but at the same time it was known that for him “enough was never enough” and he was inclined to dress it up a bit. Strangely, the one engagement about which he wrote not one sentence was Hürtgen, perhaps finally, “enough” was way too much. In any event, he left the combat zones for good and returned to Paris, a privilege not afforded to what remained of the 22nd, who fought on to Berlin.

Moonglow was, in many ways, a more satisfactory book. Maybe novels are always better at presenting messy, complicated lives in a digestible fashion. Chabon’s grandfather was also in Europe towards the end of World War II, but on a quite different mission. As a noted chemist and engineer himself, he was tasked with seeking out as many German engineers and chemist, especially those involved with the V1 and V2 Rocket programme, to find them, capture them and extradite them to America, preferably before the Russians.PhotoScan (4)

The other parts of the book present a wonderful eccentric, a talented engineer engaged in rocketry, even before the war. Passionate about space exploration, but also with a haunted and difficult married life. This is a truly remarkable book, by a wonderfully talented and inventive writer.


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Family secrets

Tolstoy is supposed to have said “Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way“, the same can be said of family secrets, happy families have small secrets that do no harm; unhappy families seem to have secrets that can cause damage generation after generation. So it is with the two books I am writing about today.

conradThe one I read first was Conrad and Eleanor by Jane Rogers. The two eponymous characters are scientists, they met at Cambridge, married when Eleanor fell pregnant, have four children and have been married some twenty five years. The children are all very different, but the third child, Caro is even physically different from the rest of the family.

But one quite outwardly ordinary day, Conrad fails to return from a conference in Germany. For a couple of days, Eleanor convinces herself that this is just because he missed his flight, she had the wrong day anyway or some fairly logical but unexplained reason. But soon, the continued silence, the fact that his colleagues seem perplexed by his non-appearance and her children’s concern force upon her than this is no ordinary absence.

Caro takes off to Munich in pursuit, Eleanor feels conflicted, was this the best option? But there is no stopping Caro, she will go and find him. Meanwhile, Eleanor overhears her other children discussing the possibility that she has “done away with him”.

During the course of this novel, we see both partners considering their past relationships; ones they have with other people as well as each other. The disappearance makes Eleanor review her behaviour, which has not been admirable and Conrad reviews the circumstances that have caused him to run and hide…

Professional conflict, work related stress and general busyness accounts for some of the fracture, professional jealousy also plays into the mix, and personal jealousy contributes to a fairly toxic situation. But it is not until there is a crisis on this scale that either of them take the necessary steps to resolve the failing marriage.  Inertia has caused them to carry on, both on a separate trajectory that is contributing to their lack of communication plus the dreaded secret – the uncovering of which has caused a leprosy of distrust to blight the marriage, the slow deadening of feelings…

Jane Rogers has the ability to observe human frailty with a warm and insightful gaze, to impart this on to the page in a way that packs an immense punch. To pick up almost any of her novels is to enter a world of awareness into characters that may be widely different in age and circumstance from our own and to inhabit their world completely for the next three hundred or so pages. Gifted and brilliant writing.

The second novel, also by a well known writer, is Cousins by Sally Vickers. This is a book after my own heart. It speaks to me of the sort of family I know, Northumbrians root and branch, with a pedigree that goes back generations and who have lived man and boy in the same house for many, many years. Dowlands, at the start of this novel, is in the hands of Hetta’s parents having been given over to them in a rather run-down state by Hetta’s grandfather. The book is told from the point of view of three women, all related to William Tye whose devastating accident is the focal point of the opening chapter.cousins

Hetta Tye is William’s younger sister, the older girl is called Sydella, know as Syd who lives in Jordan with her husband Omar. Hetta recounts all of the first section. Bell recounts the second section.  Bell is William’s aunt, sister of his father, and mother (single) of Cecelia always called Cele. Bell is a wild card, rackety and irresponsible but with a generous heart, in the eyes of the family she finally redeems herself.

As you might imagine, from the title of the book, William, Cele and Hetta are very close, and have been for as long as anyone could remember. Cele was often, not to say always, parked with William and Hetta either at Dowlands or at the house of their grandparents, Wilfred and Bertha Tye, always know as Fred and Betsy, while Bell was off with one partner or another.

Betsy, William’s grandmother, is the narrator in the third section and the final section returns to Hetta. There are more cousins, Fred and Betsy happen to be first cousins, they have three children, the eldest is Nathaniel, he also figures in this story, although even before the beginning of the novel he has died in an accident; another uncle who has died is Fred’s older brother who was killed in action.

This may all seem rather incestuous now, but reading around from books that include The Bible and many Victorian novels, the marriage of first cousins was not thought in any way odd or unsavoury or, even, unwise until quite recently. The Tye family are in no way unique, you only have to look at many Quaker family trees to find married first cousins, and as I said, Abraham sent Isaac off to marry one of the daughters of his brother.

Consanguinity and its consequences were not recognised until the mid-twentieth century. Inbreeding increases the risk of genetic disorders which leads to a decreased biological fitness, a fact which was only studied properly fairly recently. Parents with similar genetic mutations may be unaware of and unaffected by any disorder, however their children are at a higher risk and may be susceptible. Even second cousins who marry and have children, will have given their offspring a higher level  of risk than the rest of the population.

Cousins is not really about the genetic risks, but there is a definite undercurrent of family disasters being visited upon generation after generation. It is this that makes the novel so fascinating, the hidden histories that are slowly revealed, family secrets that impact one upon another. Collateral damage being how each event impacts on the rest of the group, in much the same way as a pebble thrown into a lake.

This is also a book about love and the risks that one will take, for love or through loving someone enough, or too much.

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A break from Korolev

For anyone waiting with bated breath for the further adventures of Captain Alexei Dmitriyevich Korolev from William Ryan, the new book may come as a disappointment. However, all is not lost, for at the book signing last night the author distinctly told me that the next Korolev novel was in progress…

Be not afraid though, the new novel The Constant Soldier is as good, I would say even better, than any of the previous three novels. And yes, I say that as one of the unashamed admirers of the Korolev series.

This is a departure, not only from skulduggery in Stalin’s Russia, but also from nearly every novel I have ever read about the closing years of the Second World War. It is about “the camps”, it is about soldiers – German and Russian – as the tide has turned, it is brutal and unflinching and brilliant.

ryanPaul Brandt, a highly decorated but wounded soldier, is returning from the Eastern Front, his fighting days are over; after treatment in a German hospital he is discharged and lacking any other place to go returns to his own village. Much has changed.

His family have farmed here for generations, his uncle Ernst also farms in the same valley. A valley in Upper Silesia that has been successively German, Polish, Czech, Bohemian and Moravian – back and forth since the 9th Century. Now, since Germany invaded Czechoslovakia it is again German, the Polish families have mostly be replaced by Ur-Germans, the Jewish families – well they are not there either. The rolling fields are largely covered by factories, prison camps and a seemingly delightful and incongruous holiday camp, the function of which is somewhat belied by the barbed wire, guard towers and the SS man sitting on a wall.

Paul is met at the station by his father, both of them much altered by the four years apart. On the way to the farm, such conversations that they have are sporadic but full of meaning: the Glinztmanns have moved away; Pavel Lensky now works on his father’s farm; Pavel’s brother Hubert has disappeared but Paul’s sister Monika, who was engaged to be married to Hubert is still at home.

Brandt ponders these things, worries at them and thinks. Then passing the ‘rest’ hut, he sees someone he knew in a different place and at a different time and so begins this fascinating study of loyalty, guilt, love, fear, danger…

This is as thrilling and intense as anything I have read before, it paints a different picture of the camps, no less horrifying because it is set on one of the many ‘resting’ camps for those Germans on the front line of the horror, not of the battlegrounds but the extermination or labour camps that were all over Germany and its conquered territories.

We should all know the names of the infamous ones, but how many people knew that there were literally thousands of camps, the evidence rapidly and comprehensively destroyed by their Commandants as the Russians advanced, with the inmates being marched further and further west, to fill camps at a greater distance from the advancing front line – not all these were extermination camps like Auschwitz, though even that had a nearby ‘rest’ camp.

Many were simply labour camps for mining, ammunition factories, armament factories and they had to be manned by someone, not Germans because they were needed to fight for the Fatherland; so these were the untermensch: Jews, Roma and Slavs (ethnic Poles, Serbs and later Russians) all of whom could be worked to death without fear; underfed, maltreated and shot on sight if they fell over from exhaustion and they could no longer work, what did it matter there were plenty more.

The Russians are now coming back, and Brandt and a few other people know full well what this promises for them and their people.

The genesis for this book, which William admitted was very difficult to write, was a packet of innocuous looking photographs which were purchased in 2005 by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Unless you look at them searchingly, they might appear to be holiday snaps, men and women together playful and happy.  But closer inspection shows that these uniforms are those of the most notorious of the German hierarchy, the SS. It is clear too, that these are identifiably camp guards – in fact one is Karl Höcker, adjutant to the last Commandant of Auschwitz, Richard Baer.

Some of the scenes shown in the photographs are replicated in this book, indeed two of the actual photographs are reproduced in the Author’s Note and others have been reproduced in review pages in various newspapers, but The Constant Soldier is a work of fiction, the historical background is based in fact, but the village in the valley and the people in the novel are all characters created from the agile and fertile mind of the author.

You may wonder how, if I only got the book yesterday, I have already read it – but I consume books the way many people consume chocolates – a box at a time. I, however, retain the memory of plot and character for many years. I sat down as soon as I got home and started to read…

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States of Mind

I don’t know whether it is reasonable to mix fiction and non-fiction in a single post, but I am going to do it anyway.
MillerThe Crossing, a new novel by Andrew Miller, follows the strange relationship between Maud and Tim, centred round a sailing boat called Lodestar. Everything seems superficially to be fine, marriage and a child, new house – but pregnancy has affected Maud’s inner certainties and then when tragedy strikes she goes deep into herself, unable to function except on a purely automatic level. Then one day, she wakes up and takes the Lodestar out of her moorings, fully equipped for a long voyage, the longest she has ever undertaken…

LiptrotThe non-fiction book is a difficult and demanding memoir by Amy Liptrot. Leaving Orkney to follow her dream of success in England, Amy lands up in Hackney. Several years, and several jobs later and more drinks than is good for her and with a broken heart and in danger of killing herself, she drags herself back to Orkney. This painful but honest memoir, swings between rotten descriptions of a drunkard’s depravity to a sublime recognition of the beauty of nature. Orkney being a far outpost of land is beaten with wind and weather straight off the Atlantic, and hunkered down against the raw power of nature, the land reveals itself to Amy as a survivor. The longer she stays sober, fighting her demons, the more she perceives the struggle around her of flora and fauna simply to survive. There are wonderful passage of poetic beauty in this book. The Outrun, the title of this book, is the name of the slightly untamed land at the edge of a farm where animals are sent to graze during the summer months, Highland cattle and sheep bred for hardiness. Recognising in her addiction to alcohol something akin to her father’s manic depression, Amy’s battle takes on a new enemy, but one that she is now better equipped to fight – herself. This is a book about forgiveness and redemption as much as anything. It is on the short list of the Wellcome Prize.

ThomsonKatherine Carlyle is a strange and disturbing novel, the eponymous heroine is the result of an in-vitro fertilisation, the fertilised egg has been stored for some years before she is actually “born”, and somehow this suspension of life comes to figure largely in her choices. In Rupert Thomson‘s novel we never learn why there was such a delay but the eight years seem to matter to Katherine. Sadly, she also has to cope with the death of her mother, from cancer – presumably the reason for the in-vitro procedure? Though born in England, she moves with her family to Italy, we meet her first alone in an apartment. Her father, a journalist, is away on an assignment and overhearing a casual conversation at a table nearby, Katherine decides to re-invent herself. She takes off to Germany, in pursuit of a new person and her path follows a perverse and unstable trajectory. She knows how many days it will be before her father returns to Italy, will she disappear from those few days and then return, of will she disappear further still, waiting for him to start looking for her – is this a test? If so, who is being tested? Having left her first encounter, chosen deliberately as a result of the overheard information, she abandons another contact and falls in with a louche and unappealing con man; through his contacts, dubious to say the least, she ends up in Russia – but when that does not suit her, she takes off further and further north…and vanishes.

Goshen What is a good upstanding Israeli doctor, an eminent neurosurgeon thinking when he hits a man on a deserted road in the middle of the night? He panics and thereby hangs the whole of the rest of the novel. In Ayelet Gundar-Goshen‘s second novel, Waking Lions we are confronted with a dilemma – what are we capable of? Instead of thinking his way out of trouble, he drives off. But not before he has got out of his red SUV and examined the man lying there with his head split open and his brains leaking into the sand. Einat Green knows that the man will die, and that he has killed him, what he does not realise is that he is being watched by a woman lying to one side where she has just be punched terribly hard by her husband. So Green drives off, but he has dropped his wallet and the woman he didn’t see, and would never have “seen” had he walked past her in a street, has seen him and has seen his wallet, can read and comes to find him and from then on until the last few pages, his cowardice and her intelligence keep the two of them in thrall.

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58th LFF Day 7 Afternoon

Germany, Pale Mother [Deutschland, Bleiche Mutter] Germany 1980 JOURNEY Section


There are times when you see a film that is so emotional, so expressive that you come out speechless. This is just such a film. This is an archive re-mastering and restoration of a very famous German film, first shown in 1980, devastatingly unanimously panned by the critics and shown in many countries in the shortened version. The Director-Scriptwriter, Helma Sanders-Brahms accepted the wisdom of the critics, and lived to see the restored version which was first shown in Berlin in February this year, Helma died in May.

The UK première of this version was presented at the London Film Festival today by the master-restorer and Helma Sanders-Brahms daughter.

The story behind this film and the film itself is poignant and appalling. The things that happen, happened in real life to Helma’s mother. The voiceover, which is Helma herself, is the voice of the little girl (Helma) born to her parents during the Second World War and in Germany. Her father’s great friend, Erich is a member of the Nazi party and is going out with one of two sisters, Hans goes out with the dark haired beauty, played by Eva Mattes. They scarcely have time to marry before Hans is sent into Poland. During a brief leave before being sent to France, they conceive a child. From then on, through the pregnancy and on into the first years of the child (played at one stage by Helma’s own daughter) the war is raging. Hans comes back for short leaves of two or three days tired, disillusioned and estranged to his equally tired, challenged wife. Their first house is bombed, she goes to Berlin where there are shortages and air raids; finally she is persuaded to leave for the country.

Told in painstaking and fearless detail, with brilliant performances by Eva Mattes and Ernst Jacobi (who plays Hans) the film touches on the emotional intensity of wartime privation and then peace-time dislocation and depression. Hans and Lene have barely time to know each other and later are too exhausted to love each other, and though they have both longed for peace, everything is altered from before. It is not the “after” that they imagined and the war has moved from outside to inside.

This brave telling of how it was for that generation was too much for the sensitivities of the German audience only 30 years later, the cuts made it a stronger, harsher account. Now, seventy years later we are ready for a more nuanced look, but it is not a soft focus idyll. Love is difficult, life difficult and the aftermath of the death camps is fully present, both in the visual representation and in the telling, and re-telling of a particularly gruesome version of a famous fairy tale from The Brothers Grimm.

The title comes from a Berthold Brecht poem, written prophetically in 1933, and read on the film by his daughter.

Let others speak of her shame,
I speak of my own

O Germany, pale mother!
How soiled you are
As you sit among the peoples.
You flaunt yourself
Among the besmirched.

The poorest of your sons
Lies struck down.
When his hunger was great.
Your other sons
Raised their hands against him.
This is notorious.

With their hands thus raised,
Raised against their brother,
They march insolently around you
And laugh in your face.
This is well known.

In your house
Lies are roared aloud.
But the truth
Must be silent.
Is it so?

Why do the oppressors praise you everywhere,
The oppressed accuse you?
The plundered
Point to you with their fingers, but
The plunderer praises the system
That was invented in your house!

Whereupon everyone sees you
Hiding the hem of your mantle which is bloody
With the blood
Of your best sons.

Hearing the harangues which echo from your house,
men laugh.
But whoever sees you reaches for a knife
As at the approach of a robber.

O Germany, pale mother!
How have your sons arrayed you
That you sit among the peoples
A thing of scorn and fear!

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56th LFF Day 6 Evening

German Concentration Camps Factual Survey UK 1945/2014 DEBATE Section


The title sums up this documentary. Filmed by soldiers and journalists in the Allied armies of Britain, America and Soviet Russia, this film was intended to place irrefutable evidence before the German people to discourage any lingering fanaticism or romantic attachment to Hitler and the Nazi Regime of the Third Reich.

Showing in harrowing and painstaking detail the horrific results of barbarous cruelty in only about thirty of the hundreds of camps found as the war was ending, this film took so long to compile from hundreds of reels of film that towards the end of the project the mood of the political decision makers meant that the film was shelved. Only parts of it were used in the Nuremberg Trials, and parts have been used in other documentary films about the Second World War and the Holocaust.

To date the film has not been seen in its entirety. Now thanks to painstaking research by the Imperial War Museum this important document is being seen in its complete form, based on contemporary notes and screening records through which the project has been completed.

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surprisingly not Man Booker – Atkinson & Hosseini

I think I am not the only person to be surprised that Kate Atkinson’s new novel Life after Life is not on the Man Booker Longlist. I would need to check, has she ever been on a longlist? If not – why not? Ever since her first novel Behind the Scenes at the Museum was published she has consistently produced first class novels, stories that have a singularity that makes each one a delight and also a new discovery. Some authors write the same sort of book each time, this is not a snide remark it is merely an observation, but Kate Atkinson writes a different book each time and the new one is, in my view, one of the best.

The principal character, Ursula, starts as a new born baby, she is born in February 1910 on a snowy night, the midwife is stuck somewhere (actually an inn) and Dr Fellowes is on his way, but slowly; thus in the first chapter of section two Bridget is alone with the mother Sylvie, the baby arrives choked by the cord around its neck and fails to breathe. But immediately we start again, the Doctor arrives just in time to cut the cord and the baby lives to be christened: Ursula. Right at the end of the book we revisit this scene and this time Sylvie arouses herself enough to get Bridget to find some handy surgical scissors in a drawer, so she cuts the cord and the baby lives.
This continues throughout the book. Death, though never actually named comes in the form of a dark bat, darkness, falling but never actually death, and Ursula gets to live again a different life, but always even as a child with a nagging sense of déjà vu. Each manifestation follows her through to its conclusion and then darkness falls…

This is either a profound meditation on dying and on reincarnation, though not in the Hindu/Buddhist sense for Ursula comes back each time as Ursula and gets to relive her own life but differently, or simply a rattlingly good story. The magic lies in the characterisation of this girl as she develops into a young woman; some of the awful things that happen to her are balanced by better or worse luck next time. Her character and that of her mother, brothers, her Aunt Izzie and her friends remain consistent, and each new manifestation recalibrates them to the new situation without actually altering their nature. It is quite brilliant.

Kate Atkinson writes with a quiet precision, her pen is scalpel sharp and her characters are fully rounded. This story takes us from 1910 all the way through the Second World War to its end and slightly beyond; Ursula is variously married, single, a mother, a spinster; she lives in London, Germany, visits Italy and France; survives and does not survive the Blitz and all of it is well researched; accurate and sometimes devastatingly sad and at other times gently contented and yet…sometimes, just every now and then, the curtain parts and Ursula gets another moment, she sees beyond the ‘now’ into the past or future, it is very unnerving.

scan0009The main thread that we follow through the character, Pari, in the second book, And the Mountains Echoed by Khaled Hosseini, also has a sense of the past seeping into the present. Pari and her elder brother Abdullah live in Afghanistan in a small village called Shadbagh. They are dirt poor, Pari’s birth ended her mother’s life and the two children now have a stepmother Parvana. She continues to have children, so her brother, Uncle Nabi seeks a way to relieve his new brother-in-law of his financial embarrassment. He works with a wealthy, but childless, couple Mr and Mrs Wahdati in Kabul and his solution impacts on Abdullah and Pari with heart-breaking suddenness…it takes the whole of the rest of the novel to reach a resolution of a kind.

Khaled Hosseini writes about Afghanistan in such a way that one really longs to go there, place is as much a character in his books as the story; the crowded bazaars, the dusty adobe villages, the heat and the mountains and the stories. And the Mountains Echoed starts with the father telling his children a story, full of divs and jinns. The father in the story has many children, but of them all the youngest, little Qais is the favourite but of course that is the very child that the bad div wishes to take with him to the mountain; and in order to save the rest of his children, the father has to sacrifice one. And we have no idea what is coming…but by the end of the next chapter we know exactly why this was the story for that night.

All the characters have a back story which we get to understand: Parwana’s is gut-wrenching and once we discover it, so is Mrs Wahdati’s. So like the unwrapping of a weighty parcel, we find layer upon layer of truth, half-truth and downright falsehood. Hosseini uses the device of a long letter from Uncle Nabi to a Mr Markos to help us follow the rest of the narrative, times have changed and a Cypriot surgeon has come to Afghanistan to live in the Wahdati house; they have both departed and Uncle Nabi, the faithful cook/chauffeur has been left the house in its entirety…

I unreservedly recommend both these books, and all the others by both these authors if you haven’t already discovered them.

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